Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation was born in three storied building known as Wazir Mansion on new Naham Road, Kharadar Karachi on 25th December 1876.
On the ground floor of the three storied building a public reading room was established while at the first floor belonging & furniture used by Quaid-e-Azam was kept on display. The second floor of the same monument is being used to a house a library for public. Due to time to time scientific conservation the structure of this museum is in fair state of preservation.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s father got the house (now Wazir Mansion) for rent in 1874 and settled here for some time.
In 1953, the Pakistan Government acquired this historic building. Under Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, the government protected it. Then the Pakistan Public Works Department was assigned the work of its conservation and renovation. It was formally inaugurated as Jinnah’s birthplace museum on 14 August 1953. A project of strengthening, preservation, and rehabilitation was completed by the government in 2010. Now this birthplace museum is a three-storey building with a library and museum galleries. The house now serves as a museum and a national archive.
Children (6 to 12 Years): Rs.10/-
(Students in Groups are Free to enter for study and research.)
Khaliq Dina Hall
The Khaliq Dina Hall also pronounced Khaliq Deena Hall is a library and hall situated on Bunder Road, Karachi. The building was built in 1906 and was after Ghulam Hoosain Khalikdina – a wealthy merchant and philanthropist who was the main financier for the building, and who wished for Karachi’s Muslims to have a space for literary pursuits.
It currently has a hall which is used for various events, a library, and a room that serves as the office of a local NGO.
In 1902, Khaliqdina donated 18,000 rupees out of the total cost of 33,000 rupees towards construction of the building, while the remaining 15,000 rupees were provided by the Karachi Municipal Corporation. The hall was also used after Pakistan’s independence as a site for Majlis during the last ten days of Muharam , which were addressed by the eminent Islamic scholars Allama Rasheed Turabi, Allama Aqeel Turabi and Dr Kalbe Sadiq.
What is SINDH?
The Sindh province has been designated after the river Sindh (Indus) which literally created it and has been also its sole means of sustenance. However, the importance of the river and close phonetically resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider Sindhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh.
Later phonetical changes transformed Sindhu into Hindu in Pahlavi and into Hoddu in Hebrew. The Greeks (who conquered Sindh in 125 BC under the command of the Alexander the Great) rendered it into Indos, hence modern Indus.
The Indus valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. The areas constituting Pakistan have had a historical individuality of their own and Sindh is the most important among such areas. The prehistoric site of Kot Diji in Sindh has furnished information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the history of Pakistan by at least another 300 years, from about 2,500 BC.
Evidence of a new element of pre-Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Baluchistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the year 25,00 BC and 1,500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public-baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living happily in an organized manner.
The earliest authentic history of Sindh dates from the time when Alexander the Great abandoned his scheme of conquest towards the Ganges, alarmed at the discontent of his soldiers. He embarked a portion of the army in boats, floated them down the Jhelum and the Chenab, and marched the remainder on the banks of the river till he came to the Indus. There he constructed a fleet, which sailed along the coast towards the Persian Gulf with part of his forces, under the command of Nearchus and Ptolemy, whilst Alexander himself marched through Southern Baluchistan and Persia to Seistan or Susa. At that time Sindh was in the possession of the Hindus, the last of whose rulers was Raja Sahasi, whose race, as is reported by native historians, governed the kingdom for over two thousand years. The Persian monarchs were probably alluded to, for in the sixth century BC Sindh was invaded by them. They defeated and slew the monarch in a pitched battle and plundered the province and then left. Eight years after his accession to the Persian throne, Darius I, son of Hystaspes extended his authority as far as the Indus. This was about 513 BC.
The Arab conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 AD gave the Muslims a firm foothold on the sub-continent. The description of Hiun Tsang, a Chinese historian, leaves no doubt that the social and economic restrictions inherent in the caste differentiations of Hindu society had however, gradually sapped the inner vitality of the social system and Sindh fell without much resistance before the Muslim armies. According to Al-Idreesi, the famous city of Al-Mansura was founded during the reign of Mansur (754-775 AD) the second Khalifa of the Abbasid dynasty. Khalifa Harun-al-Rashid (786-809 AD) was able to extend the frontiers of Sindh on its western side. For nearly two hundred years since its conquest by Muhammad Bin Qasim, Sindh remained an integral part of the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphates. The provincial governors were appointed directly by the central government. History has preserved a record of some 37 of them.
The Arab rule brought Sindh within the orbit of the Islamic civilization, Sindhi language was developed and written in the naskh script. Education became widely diffused and Sindhi scholars attained fame in the Muslim world. Agriculture and commerce progressed considerably. Ruins of Mansura, the medieval Arab capital of Sindh (11 kms south east of Shahdadpur) testify to the grandeur of the city and the development of urban life during this period.
In the 10th century, native people replaced the Arab rule in Sindh. Samma and Soomra dynasties ruled Sindh for long. These dynasties produced some rulers who obtained fame due to judicious dispensation and good administration.
Sindh was partially independent and the scene of great disorders till late in the sixteenth century when it failed into the hands of Emperor Akbar, and for a hundred and fifty years the chiefs paid tribute, but only as often as they were compelled to do so, to the Emperor at Delhi. Later the Kalhora clan claiming descent from the house of Abbas and long settled in Sindh produced religious leaders of whom Main Adam Shah attained prominence in the 16th century. His descendants continued to gather large following and this enabled them to capture political power in the north western Sindh under the leadership of Mian Nasir Muhammad. This happened in the 2nd half of the 17th century. By the turn of that century, foundations of the Kalhora power were firmly laid in the northern Sindh under the leadership of Mian Yar Mohammad. During the reign of his son, Mian Noor Muhammad, lower Sindh with Thatta as its capital came under the Kalhora administration (1150 A.H).
Under the banner of Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur, the Balochis defeated the last Kalhora ruler Mian Abdul Nabi in the battle of Halani in 1782 AD. Talpur Amirs regained the parts of Sindh (Karachi, Khairpur, Sabzal Kot and Umar Kot) which the last Kalhora chief had conceded to the neighboring rulers. By eliminating the foreign interference, which had plagued the Kalhora rule, and by their essentially democratic way of governance, the Talpurs were able to take the people into confidence and thus achieved.
Great many things within a short period of 60 years. They built up an excellent system of forts and outposts guarding the frontiers, extended the irrigation system, encouraged scholarly pursuits and educational institutions, and promoted trade and commerce internally as well as with the neighboring countries.
The British who came to Sindh also as traders became so powerful in rest of the sub-continent that in 1843 Sindh lost its independence falling prey to the British imperialistic policy. The Talpurs were defeated on the battlefields of Miani, Dubba and Kunhera and taken prisoners. The conquerors behaved inhumanly with the vanquished as they did with the Muslim rulers in India. Charles Napier who commanded the troops subsequently became the first Governor of the province of Sindh.
The British had conquered Sindh from their bases in Bombay and Kutch and their supporters were Hindus. Therefore, Sindh was annexed to the Bombay Presidency in 1843 and a constant policy to subdue the Muslim majority and to lionize the Hindu minority in Sindh was followed. Trade and commerce, Services and education became monopolies in the hands of the minority whom with the support of the rulers wrought havoc on Muslims. Within a few years forty percent of the Muslim land holdings passed on to the Hindu creditors.
It was after a long struggle that the cause of Sindh was supported by the Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah when he brought in his famous 14-points the demand of Sindh’s separation from Bombay Presidency. H.H. Sir Agh Khan, G.M. Syed, Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan (NWFP) and many other Indian Muslim leaders also played their pivotal rule that was why the Muslims of Sindh succeeded in getting Sindh separated from the Bombay Presidency in 1936.
Quaid-e-Azam House Museum – Pakistan’s iconic building
The historic Quaid-e-Azam House Museum, situated at the crossing of Shahrah-e-Faisal and Fatima Jinnah Road, is a gorgeous yellow stone double storey building in the middle of a Vast open piece of land which is popularly known as the Flag Staff House.
The house build on plot No.241, Staff Lines, Karachi Cantonment, was purchased by Quaid-i-Azam for Rs.1,15,000/- with a down payment of Rs.5,000/-. The sale agreement was made on 14th August, 1943 with Mr. Sorab Kavasji Katrak, a former Mayor of Karachi. At that time the house was shown as being situated at Bonus Road, an extension of Elphinstone Street which are now called Fatima Jinnah Road and Zaib-un-Nisa Street respectively.
It is not known when this house was built, except that it was in the fading year of the 19th century. Available records show that until 1922 the owner was Mr. Ramachand Hansraj Kutchi Lohana. The house was later obtained on rent by the British Indian Army. From 1940 onward, Brig, Hartwell, Major Gen. C. Durnfort, Maj. Gen. N.G. Hind and Gen. Douglas D. Gracy who later became the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Pakistan Army have resided here.
Obviously, from 1943 onward, these army commanders were tenants of the new owner. Rent receipts have been retrieved which show addressed to Quaid-i-Azam (between January and April of 1947) by the then General Officer Commanding, Lt. Gen. D.D. Gracy. The one dated 18th April, 1947 is interesting.
In September, 1947 a month after the creation of Pakistan, Quaid-i-Azam’s personal belongings were transferred to Flag Staff House from his house at 10-Aurangzeb Road, New Delhi, where he had lived during the intense political activities leading to independence from British rule.
At the time of sale to Quaid-i-Azam, the Flag Staff House was owned jointly by Mr. Sorab Kavasji Katrak, his wife Mrs. Dina Sorab Kavasji Katrak and daughters Virbaiji, Khorshedbai and Parinbai. In the Deed of Sale, Mr. and Mrs. Katrak and their eldest daughter, virbaiji, were shown as the trustees duly registered under an Indenture of Trust dated 31st May, 1931. It was from these Trustees that Cantonment Board had rented the house for residential use of the rental as being Rs.435.50. there are letters army to brass.
The Quaid, Mr. Mohammad Ali Jinnah, did not get time to live in this house, there is no authentic record as would show when he visited this place but there are otherwise reliable traditions indicating that he visited this house quite often.
After his demise, his sister and political companion, Mohtarma Fatima, Jinnah, who had lived with him in the Governor General House, moved in Flag Staff House on 13th September, 1948. She lived here until 1964 where from she shifted to her own house, the “Mohatta Palace” (Qasre-i-Fatima), in Clifton. The Madir-i-Millat, Mohtarma Fatima Jinnah, died on 9th July, 1967. A commission was set up, by a Presidential Decree, to identify the Quaid’s personal belongings of historical significance. The identified relics found in poor state were scientifically treated and restored for public display.
With the death of Quaid-i-Azam’s last surviving sister Shirinbai, responsibility of Flag Staff House reverted to the reconstituted “Quaid-i-Azam Trust”, comprising Mr. Hashim Raza and Mr. Liaquat Merchant. From these Trustees the Rs.51,07,000/- by a Deed signed on 14th February, 1985. Restoration and renovation work was taken in hand earlier on le June, 1984 and the Quaid-i-Azam House, as it is now named, has been declared open to public 25th November, 1993. Spread on 10,241 sq.yds. the building itself is not too large. There are three rooms on the ground floor and three rooms in the first. Two exterior rooms are 16 feet 10 inches wide. The same dimensions are of the rooms on the first floor, each with openings to the verandah. There is an annexe, which is now converted into an auditorium-cum-exhibition hall for debates, educational lectures, audio-visual shows etc.
There were also 18 out-houses, 4 garages, 3 guard rooms and a kitchen which have now been converted into the administrative offices. The structure is built in lime-stone masonry with wooden trusses supporting the roof. Red ceramic Manglore tiles are used at the top to cover the roof. The staircase is all wooden and is in dark brown color. Beautifully colored tiles are used at the ground floor and wooden planks are used on the first as floor covering.
Each room is decorated with those relics which Quaid-i-Azam used during his lifetime. A finely carved cigarette box of good quality sandalwood is one of the antiques now placed in the house. A big camphorwood box which is skillfully carved on the sides is also placed in the bedroom on the first floor. The sofa sets are preserved in their original form. The study room consists of a reading table, chairs, table lamp and some stationery items. A resting sofa is placed at on corner of the room. The shelves made of wood and fine quality glass are decorated with high standard crockery which were used by the Quaid-i-Azam.
The Quaid-i-Azam House is now renovated. It is centrally air-conditioned and there is a full fledged fire extinguishing unit. Other facilities include burglar alarm system, close circuit TV and film projection facility.
The Department of Archaeology and Museums, Government of Pakistan and Public Works Department jointly prepared a comprehensive scheme for the renovation and restoration of the Quaid-i-Azam House. The scheme was approved by the Government of Pakistan for an estimated cost of Rs.18.666 Million. The approved scheme envisaged the following items of works.
1: Cost of the Acquisition of House.
2: Protective works like termite control and moisture resistant treatment.
3: Complete Renovation/Restoration of Building.
4: Re-electrification of the House.
5: Central Air Conditioning of the House and Annexe.
6: Conversion of Annexe into an Auditorium and Projection Room.
7: Provision for security arrangements like fire alarms and fire fighting systems.
8: Landscaping and development of house garden and lawns.
9: Setting up of House Museum. Purchase of Quaid’s relics where ever available.
The Pakistan P. W. D. was assigned the major items of works as at b-h above and Department of Archaeology and Museums was made responsible for i and j above. Mrs. Yasmin Lari an outstanding Architect of Karachi was appointed as Consultant Architect to supervise the entire work of Quaid-i-Azam House.
THE MAIN HOUSE:
The main House has been completely renovated and restored but its general character or profile has been maintained intact. Only the roof of ground floor was changed and laid in cement concrete but was provided by refixing the false wooden ceiling and wooden floor on top similar to the original design, using almost 80% old material. The roof over the 1s1 Floor has been done according to its original plan and finished with red clay tiles. On the exterior, missing and damaged portions of columns baluster and baluster and balconies have been restored to match the original style and color. Damaged stone members of the building have been replaced with new ones to strengthen the structure. The main building has been made centrally Air Conditioned and concealed electric wiring has also been provided with old original style fittings. All electric controls have been placed in two control rooms where fire alarm systems will also he monitored.
The Annexe originally consisted of four small rooms with a verandah provided access to the rooms. The flat concrete lintels in the verandah indicate that it was added at some later date. The dividing walls of the rooms have now been removed to provide a large Hall to serve as an Auditorium and Projection Room. The verandah has been retained which opens towards the front garden. Though the roof has been changed, it follows the original profile of the slopping roof and has been finished with clay tiles.
The roof profile and clay tiles finish has been maintained according to the original construction. The front verandah has also been maintained as in the original building. The Out House have been converted into reserves, offices, library etc.
A small library, containing books about Quaid-i-Azam and Freedom Movement has been established in July, 2003 to facilitate visiting Schollars and Students.
Garden in front and in the back of the Quaid-i-Azam House has been redesigned to serve the requirement of Museum visitors. It has been laid after due repairs and restoration of water supply system. A number of lights have been provided in the garden for security and also for its use on special occasions.
Summer: 8:00 AM to 7:00 PM.
Winter: 9:00 AM to 6:00 PM
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