Thatta, a district of Sindh province, is famous for its necropolis that covers atleast 10 kilometers area on Makli Hills. Hundreds of thousands people visit these sites and perform pilgrimage to commemorate the buried saints and offer fatehas.
Thatta remained capital of three successive dynasties which were later ruled by Delhi’s Mughal emperors. The remains of the city and its necropolis gives a unique idea of the great civilization in Sindh. Thatta city ostensibly reveals mystic lineages of the unique culture and tradition of Sindh.
It is presumed as the Rome of Pakistan. Thatta is outlandish town, utterly 98 KM to the east of Karachi. It represents one of the fascinating architecture and historical monuments like Makli Hills, the largest necropolis in the world, which spreads over an area of 10 square km.
The building at Makli seems increasingly apparent and the monument of imperceptible heritage. United Nations World heritage Site regards Makli Hill as unequivocal and exorbitant architecture as viewed on Tombs there. It accommodates approximately 500,000 tombs; each tomb is itself manifestation of this magnificent architecture.
It is now reckoned as UNISCO Heritage Site. Despite the dereliction, however many historical accounts speak of how people’s dedication to the shrines never diminished. Another appealing monument which exist there is the mosque of Shah Jahan, which possess 100 domes also enlisted in the UNESCO heritage Site.
Bhambhore is situated at the distance of 64 km towards the east of Karachi, in Hyderabad district of Sindh. It is located on the north bank of Gharo Creek, near Indian Ocean in Pakistan. Bhambhore represents the exemplary glimpse of grand cultural heritage.
Bhambhore was the capital of a Chief Bamboo Raja around the 10th century and was named after him. Archaeological work reveals the distinguished impression from 1st to 13th century. The city is well known for the folk love story of legends Sussui and Punhon. Keenjhar Lake is also considered as the Kalri Lake. It is placed in district Thatta, Sindh. Keenjhar Lake is at distance of 122 km from Karachi.
The lake stretched out 24 km in length and 6 km in width. Roughly its depth from the surface can be measured as 26 feet. The Indus River flows adjoining to the Keenjhar Lake. This lake is one of the facets of the miracles of nature. Keenjhar Lake is the home to many species of birds, such as gees, cormorants, gulls, ducks, flamingos, coots and so forth.
Khaliq Dina Hall
The Khaliq Dina Hall also pronounced Khaliq Deena Hall is a library and hall situated on Bunder Road, Karachi. The building was built in 1906 and was after Ghulam Hoosain Khalikdina – a wealthy merchant and philanthropist who was the main financier for the building, and who wished for Karachi’s Muslims to have a space for literary pursuits.
It currently has a hall which is used for various events, a library, and a room that serves as the office of a local NGO.
In 1902, Khaliqdina donated 18,000 rupees out of the total cost of 33,000 rupees towards construction of the building, while the remaining 15,000 rupees were provided by the Karachi Municipal Corporation. The hall was also used after Pakistan’s independence as a site for Majlis during the last ten days of Muharam , which were addressed by the eminent Islamic scholars Allama Rasheed Turabi, Allama Aqeel Turabi and Dr Kalbe Sadiq.
What is SINDH?
The Sindh province has been designated after the river Sindh (Indus) which literally created it and has been also its sole means of sustenance. However, the importance of the river and close phonetically resemblance in nomenclature would make one consider Sindhu as the probable origin of the name of Sindh.
Later phonetical changes transformed Sindhu into Hindu in Pahlavi and into Hoddu in Hebrew. The Greeks (who conquered Sindh in 125 BC under the command of the Alexander the Great) rendered it into Indos, hence modern Indus.
The Indus valley civilization is the farthest visible outpost of archeology in the abyss of prehistoric times. The areas constituting Pakistan have had a historical individuality of their own and Sindh is the most important among such areas. The prehistoric site of Kot Diji in Sindh has furnished information of high significance for the reconstruction of a connected story which pushes back the history of Pakistan by at least another 300 years, from about 2,500 BC.
Evidence of a new element of pre-Harappan culture has been traced here. When the primitive village communities in Baluchistan were still struggling against a difficult highland environment, a highly cultured people were trying to assert themselves at Kot Diji one of the most developed urban civilization of the ancient world that flourished between the year 25,00 BC and 1,500 BC in the Indus valley sites of Moenjodaro and Harappa. The people were endowed with a high standard of art and craftsmanship and well-developed system of quasi-pictographic writing which despite ceaseless efforts still remains un-deciphered. The remarkable ruins of the beautifully planned Moenjodaro and Harappa towns, the brick buildings of the common people, roads, public-baths and the covered drainage system envisage the life of a community living happily in an organized manner.
The earliest authentic history of Sindh dates from the time when Alexander the Great abandoned his scheme of conquest towards the Ganges, alarmed at the discontent of his soldiers. He embarked a portion of the army in boats, floated them down the Jhelum and the Chenab, and marched the remainder on the banks of the river till he came to the Indus. There he constructed a fleet, which sailed along the coast towards the Persian Gulf with part of his forces, under the command of Nearchus and Ptolemy, whilst Alexander himself marched through Southern Baluchistan and Persia to Seistan or Susa. At that time Sindh was in the possession of the Hindus, the last of whose rulers was Raja Sahasi, whose race, as is reported by native historians, governed the kingdom for over two thousand years. The Persian monarchs were probably alluded to, for in the sixth century BC Sindh was invaded by them. They defeated and slew the monarch in a pitched battle and plundered the province and then left. Eight years after his accession to the Persian throne, Darius I, son of Hystaspes extended his authority as far as the Indus. This was about 513 BC.
The Arab conquest of Sindh by Muhammad Bin Qasim in 712 AD gave the Muslims a firm foothold on the sub-continent. The description of Hiun Tsang, a Chinese historian, leaves no doubt that the social and economic restrictions inherent in the caste differentiations of Hindu society had however, gradually sapped the inner vitality of the social system and Sindh fell without much resistance before the Muslim armies. According to Al-Idreesi, the famous city of Al-Mansura was founded during the reign of Mansur (754-775 AD) the second Khalifa of the Abbasid dynasty. Khalifa Harun-al-Rashid (786-809 AD) was able to extend the frontiers of Sindh on its western side. For nearly two hundred years since its conquest by Muhammad Bin Qasim, Sindh remained an integral part of the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphates. The provincial governors were appointed directly by the central government. History has preserved a record of some 37 of them.
The Arab rule brought Sindh within the orbit of the Islamic civilization, Sindhi language was developed and written in the naskh script. Education became widely diffused and Sindhi scholars attained fame in the Muslim world. Agriculture and commerce progressed considerably. Ruins of Mansura, the medieval Arab capital of Sindh (11 kms south east of Shahdadpur) testify to the grandeur of the city and the development of urban life during this period.
In the 10th century, native people replaced the Arab rule in Sindh. Samma and Soomra dynasties ruled Sindh for long. These dynasties produced some rulers who obtained fame due to judicious dispensation and good administration.
Sindh was partially independent and the scene of great disorders till late in the sixteenth century when it failed into the hands of Emperor Akbar, and for a hundred and fifty years the chiefs paid tribute, but only as often as they were compelled to do so, to the Emperor at Delhi. Later the Kalhora clan claiming descent from the house of Abbas and long settled in Sindh produced religious leaders of whom Main Adam Shah attained prominence in the 16th century. His descendants continued to gather large following and this enabled them to capture political power in the north western Sindh under the leadership of Mian Nasir Muhammad. This happened in the 2nd half of the 17th century. By the turn of that century, foundations of the Kalhora power were firmly laid in the northern Sindh under the leadership of Mian Yar Mohammad. During the reign of his son, Mian Noor Muhammad, lower Sindh with Thatta as its capital came under the Kalhora administration (1150 A.H).
Under the banner of Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur, the Balochis defeated the last Kalhora ruler Mian Abdul Nabi in the battle of Halani in 1782 AD. Talpur Amirs regained the parts of Sindh (Karachi, Khairpur, Sabzal Kot and Umar Kot) which the last Kalhora chief had conceded to the neighboring rulers. By eliminating the foreign interference, which had plagued the Kalhora rule, and by their essentially democratic way of governance, the Talpurs were able to take the people into confidence and thus achieved.
Great many things within a short period of 60 years. They built up an excellent system of forts and outposts guarding the frontiers, extended the irrigation system, encouraged scholarly pursuits and educational institutions, and promoted trade and commerce internally as well as with the neighboring countries.
The British who came to Sindh also as traders became so powerful in rest of the sub-continent that in 1843 Sindh lost its independence falling prey to the British imperialistic policy. The Talpurs were defeated on the battlefields of Miani, Dubba and Kunhera and taken prisoners. The conquerors behaved inhumanly with the vanquished as they did with the Muslim rulers in India. Charles Napier who commanded the troops subsequently became the first Governor of the province of Sindh.
The British had conquered Sindh from their bases in Bombay and Kutch and their supporters were Hindus. Therefore, Sindh was annexed to the Bombay Presidency in 1843 and a constant policy to subdue the Muslim majority and to lionize the Hindu minority in Sindh was followed. Trade and commerce, Services and education became monopolies in the hands of the minority whom with the support of the rulers wrought havoc on Muslims. Within a few years forty percent of the Muslim land holdings passed on to the Hindu creditors.
It was after a long struggle that the cause of Sindh was supported by the Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah when he brought in his famous 14-points the demand of Sindh’s separation from Bombay Presidency. H.H. Sir Agh Khan, G.M. Syed, Sir Abdul Qayyum Khan (NWFP) and many other Indian Muslim leaders also played their pivotal rule that was why the Muslims of Sindh succeeded in getting Sindh separated from the Bombay Presidency in 1936.
Wazir Mansion – Quaid-e-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah’s house
Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the father of the nation was born in three storied building known as Wazir Mansion on new Naham Road, Kharadar Karachi on 25th December 1876.
On the ground floor of the three storied building a public reading room was established while at the first floor belonging & furniture used by Quaid-e-Azam was kept on display. The second floor of the same monument is being used to a house a library for public. Due to time to time scientific conservation the structure of this museum is in fair state of preservation.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah’s father got the house (now Wazir Mansion) for rent in 1874 and settled here for some time.
In 1953, the Pakistan Government acquired this historic building. Under Ancient Monuments Preservation Act, the government protected it. Then the Pakistan Public Works Department was assigned the work of its conservation and renovation. It was formally inaugurated as Jinnah’s birthplace museum on 14 August 1953. A project of strengthening, preservation, and rehabilitation was completed by the government in 2010. Now this birthplace museum is a three-storey building with a library and museum galleries. The house now serves as a museum and a national archive.
Children (6 to 12 Years): Rs.10/-
(Students in Groups are Free to enter for study and research.)
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